Espresso: A small amount of water passes through finely ground coffee under high pressure. The result is an intense full-bodied coffee beverage (25-30ml approximately) with black streaks on top. It is the base of inspiration of many coffee drinks worldwide, including the ristretto, lungo, americano and cappuccino.
Ristretto: An espresso pulled short, i.e. with less water, it is more intense due to the higher concentration of dissolved solids. It is preferred by people who enjoy the complexity of an espresso beverage but with a higher intensity.
Lungo: This is a "diluted" espresso, prepared by adding hot water (60-65°C) to the espresso. Lungo has a low intensity and a thin body. Usually the espresso to water ratio is 1:1. It is preferred by people who enjoy the complexity of espresso without the high intensity.
Americano: This coffee is prepared by adding hot water to the espresso. The result is a lighter version of the espresso, both in intensity and body. Usually the espresso to water ratio is 1:4. To prepare an americano, we use water to pull a sing;e espresso and then add a small amount of hot water (60-65°C). The Long Black is a term for the americano which originated from Australia-Asia. The americano was first created during the Second World War, when Americans added water to their espressos.